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it:virtualization

服务器级别的虚拟化

Glossary

  • Hypervisor,又称虚拟机器监视器(英语:virtual machine monitor,缩写为 VMM),在电脑上的软件,固件或是硬件,能用来建立与执行虚拟机器。
    • Type-1: native or bare-metal hypervisors, e.g. VMware ESX/ESXi, MS Hyper-V
    • Type-2: hosted hypervisors, e.g. VirtualBox, VMware Workstation
    • 另外, Linux's Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) and FreeBSD's bhyve are kernel modules that effectively convert the host operating system to a type-1 hypervisor. Nevertheless, since Linux distributions and FreeBSD are still general-purpose operating systems, with other applications competing for VM resources, KVM and bhyve can also be categorized as type-2 hypervisors.
  • VMware vSphere
    • node 安装 ESXi 操作系统,作为 bare-metal hypervisor
    • 用户可使用 vSphere Client 控制单 node:安装、使用虚拟机,将 node 再划分为 pool(资源池),管理用户权限
    • 但管理多 nodes 需使用 vCenter Server
    • ESXi 每 CPU 计价
    • vCenter Server 单独收费
    • 无盘站无法直接安装虚拟机,需要使用网络存储
    • 将物理硬盘整块当做虚拟硬盘让虚拟机用 ESXi 5.1: Using Raw Device Mappings (RDM) on an HP Microserver | Forza IT
      • 速度会比直接用差很多(73.69 MB/s vs 48.90 MB/s)
    • 虚拟硬盘格式
      • 厚置备延迟置零 zeroed thick:默认的创建格式,创建磁盘时,直接从磁盘分配空间,但对磁盘保留数据不置零。所以当有I/O操作时,只需要做置零的操作。磁盘性能较好,时间短,适合于做池模式的虚拟桌面
      • 厚置备置零 eager zeroed thick:创建群集功能的磁盘。创建磁盘时,直接从磁盘分配空间,并对磁盘保留数据置零。所以当有I/O操作时,不需要等待直接执行。磁盘性能最好,时间长,适合于做跑运行繁重应用业务的虚拟机
      • 精简置备 thin:创建磁盘时,占用磁盘的空间大小根据实际使用量计算,即用多少分多少,提前不分配空间,对磁盘保留数据不置零,且最大不超过划分磁盘的大小。所以当有I/O操作时,需要先分配空间,在将空间置零,才能执行I/O操作。当有频繁I/O操作时,磁盘性能会有所下降I/O不频繁时,磁盘性能较好;I/O频繁时,磁盘性能较差。时间短,适合于对磁盘I/O不频繁的业务应用虚拟机
      • “清单”是 Inventory 的翻译
  • Openstack

iSCSI

Glossary:

  • Initiator: An initiator functions as an iSCSI client
  • Target: The iSCSI specification refers to a storage resource located on an iSCSI server (more generally, one of potentially many instances of iSCSI storage nodes running on that server) as a target.

Tools:

it/virtualization.txt · Last modified: 2015/07/23 14:29 by admin